Career Development
Occupational Studies

Resource Guide
The State Education Department The University of the State of New York


Discovering Integration/Making Connections Among the Standards (back to contents)

The following charts list a sampling of performance indicators, tasks, and standards from several New York State standards. As students work toward the attainment of Career Development and Occupational Studies Standards, they may demonstrate their knowledge and skills in tasks which are undertaken in other disciplines.

In the same manner, students may demonstrate knowledge and skills in mathematics, science, and technology, or in English language arts, the Arts, languages other than English, etc., standards in tasks and activities that take place in career development classes. The integration of tasks and activities from several content areas suggests and encourages collaboration at all levels and in all disciplines on the part of teachers.



Performance Indicators

Tasks & Activities


demonstrate the integration and application of academic and occupational skills in their school learning, work, and personal lives.

Career Development
Standard 2, Commencement level

  • write a review of a technical manual from the perspective of current industry standards

English Language Arts,
Standard 3,
Commencement level,
Speaking and Writing

  • investigate and select a computer program for use in designing floor plans and elevation drawings for a set design

Standard 2,
Commencement level

describe the changing nature of the workplace brought about by global competition and technology

Career Development
Standard 1, Elementary level

  • describe through example how technologies can have positive and negative impacts on the environment and on the way people work

Mathematics, Science, and Technology,
Standard 5,
Elementary level

  • . . . explain the effects of international trade on the American economy

Social Studies,
Standard 4,
Elementary level

evaluate facts, solve advanced problems, and make decisions by applying logic and reasoning skills


Career Development
Standard 3a, Intermediate level

  • estimate the number of students who might choose to eat hot dogs at a picnic

Mathematics, Science, and Technology,
Standard 3,
Intermediate level

  • use the criteria of scientific investigation to evaluate the significance of a lab experiment

English Language Arts,
Standard 3,
Intermediate level,
Listening and Reading

interact effectively and sensitively with all other members of the health care team in order to provide high-quality client care

Career Development

Standard 3b, Core level

  • understand the cultural implications of the spoken language and of the dynamics of social interaction

Languages Other Than English,
Standard 2,
Checkpoint A

  • take part in and conduct meetings of student organizations

English Language Arts,
Standard 4,
Commencement level,
Listening and Speaking

understand the kinds of resources available in their community and make informed decisions related to their own use

Health, Physical Education, Family and Consumer Science
Standard 3, Elementary level

  • explain the resources needed to build a simple item (e.g., foot-stool, sandbox)

Career Development,
Standard 3a,
Elementary level

  • identify common skills important for success in the workplace and relate them to personal strengths and areas in need of improvement

Career Development,
Standard 1,
Elementary level

apply algebraic and geometric concepts and skills to the solution of problems


Mathematics, Science, and Technology
Standard 1, Commencement level

  • use mathematical concepts to calculate fuel consumption for a planned flight

Career Development,
Standard 3b,
Experiential level

  • conduct research, prepare a chart, and make a presentation about the sales volume and market share for a local business

Career Development,
Standard 3b,
Experiential level

know the role of economics in society, politics, and culture


Social Studies
Standard 4

  • identify and explain social, organizational, economic, business, and technological systems that stimulate the transition from an agriculture-based economy to a service-, information-, and technology-based economy

Career Development,
Standard 3b,
Core level

  • describe the American free enterprise system and its effect on the health care system

Career Development,
Standard 3b,
Specialized level

express ideas and concerns clearly and respectfully in conversations and group discussions


English Language Arts
Standard 4 Intermediate level

  • work cooperatively in group situations and analyze the importance of using collective abilities in achieving group goals and objectives

Career Development,
Standard 1,
Intermediate level

  • interact with other students in a meeting to discuss an agricultural topic

Career Development,
Standard 3b,
Intermediate level


Career Majors  (back to contents)

Nationwide school reform efforts have prompted many school systems to consider multiple paths to better prepare students for life after high school. Career-oriented programs represent one pathway that provides useful and valuable educational experiences for all students. The current reform environment intends to integrate academic content within traditional high school occupational education programs. At the same time, career major programs address the need to provide real-world practical applications with academic content. Students who perform well on tests and classroom assignments also need to develop the ability to apply academic concepts to practical problems. The increasing number of jobs requiring post-high school education makes it mandatory that schools prepare students to be successful at one or more postsecondary levels (certificate, two- and/or four-year college level). Career majors are viewed as a way to link academic and occupational education within the reform framework and to increase standards. In New York State, the Departments of Education, Labor, and Economic Development were initially responsible for defining and recommending career major options published in the Preliminary Draft Framework for Career Development and Occupational Studies. The six career clusters include:




Career Majors:






prepares individuals through composition, symbolic representation, and a variety of communications techniques to create, perform, and conduct literary, artistic, entertainment, and athletic activities.

Sample occupations: editor, choreographer, composer, graphic designer, interior designer, dancer, journalist, and broadcast announcer.


prepares individuals to perform managerial, research, and/or technical support functions within a public or private organization involving the creation, storage, and retrieval/distribution of information.

Sample occupations: systems analyst, financial manager, database administrator, securities broker, project/general manager, sales/marketing representative, accountant, executive secretary, and administrative assistant.


prepares individuals to apply technical knowledge and skills in designing, assembling, inspecting, maintaining, and repairing systems, structures, or products.

Sample occupations: civil engineer, automotive repair (engine/body), air traffic controller, power plant electrician, meteorological specialist, aircraft mechanic, and CAD drafter.


prepares individuals to apply scientific, technical, and social knowledge and skills to assist clients in maintaining health, preventing illness, and diagnosing and treating symptoms.

Sample occupations: physical therapist, dental hygienist, pathologist, dietitian, pharmacist, radiological technician, physician, medical secretary, medical laboratory technician, nurse, occupational therapist, and home health aide.


prepares compassionate/nurturing employees to help individuals and families by providing protective services (police, fire safety, and legal), social services (care of the elderly, sick, disabled, poor, and homeless), education and life-long learning (teacher, guidance counselor, and college professor), and community services (postal, sanitation, utilities, and public works).

Sample occupations: police detective, teacher, polygraph examiner, coroner, cook, funeral director, and postal service clerk.


prepares individual to apply technical, scientific, and social skills to produce food and fiber for human needs while assuring a healthy natural environment.

Sample occupations: veterinarian, forest ranger, bio-chemist, meteorologist, commercial fishery, florist, stable hand, pollution control technician, logger, pet shop worker, food inspector, pesticide applicator, landscaper, nursery worker, and farmer.


The following illustrations depict the flow of core skills identified in select career major areas and provide models designed to suggest specific programs of study to deliver these skills.

The vertical charts identify key competencies which would generate industry-wide content at three distinct levels of achievement. A student’s program of study would determine the instructional intensity and degree of specialization of this content.

The horizontal charts identify suggested models of instructional programs with combinations of course selections that content would deliver career major skills and knowledge leading to distinct career pathways of immediate employment and/or continuing study at the postsecondary level.



The Conventional Classroom Compared With The SCANS Classroom  (back to contents)


From the Conventional Classroom

To the SCANS Classroom

Teacher knows answer.

More than one solution may be viable and teacher may not have it in advance.

Students routinely work alone.

Students routinely work with teachers, peers, and community members.

Teacher plans all activities.

Students and teachers plan and negotiate activities.

Teacher makes all assessments. Information is organized, evaluated, interpreted, and communicated to students by teacher.

Students routinely assess themselves. Information is acquired, evaluated, organized, interpreted, and communicated by students to appropriate audiences.

Organizing system of the classroom is simple: one teacher teaches 30 students.

Organizing systems are complex: teacher and students both reach out beyond school for additional information.

Reading, writing, and math are treated as separate disciplines; listening and speaking often are missing from curriculum.

Disciplines needed for problem-solving are integrated; listening and speaking are fundamental parts of learning.

Thinking is usually theoretical and "academic."

Thinking involves problem-solving, reasoning, and decision-making.

Students are expected to conform to teacher’s behavioral expectations; integrity and honesty are monitored by teacher; students’ self-esteem is often poor.

Students are expected to be responsible, sociable, self-managing, and resourceful; integrity and honesty are monitored within the social context of the classroom; students’ self-esteem is high because they are in charge of own learning.



Sample Local Curriculum (back to contents)

Locally-developed procedures for raising student achievement and improving professional practice are most effective when initiated by those who take ownership for implementation; developed in a culture of shared inquiry; and focused on a common mission that blends local needs with State and National policies and purposes.

As teachers plan and reflect with their students and each other on the best practices they can employ to illustrate the State standards, their work will include elements of planning, instructional design, assessment development, professional development, etc.

Educators in the Genesee-Livingston-Orleans-Wyoming School to Work partnership have addressed the Career Development and Occupational Studies learning standards by creating an integrated school-to-work system that reaches all students. Their strategies incorporate career development, workplace competencies, and work-based learning into all levels of education. The following charts are a reflection of those strategies.



Academic Area Grade Level(s)

Curriculum Description

Sample Activities

School District Representative

Math K-8

Math Relevances
Learn math skills through problem-solving in coordination with local businesses

  • K and pre-lst: Learning graphing, whole numbers and solving word problems through visit to ice cream parlor
  • 1st will learn measurements, etc., by visit to hardware store

Lori Orologio
Linda Smith

Math K-5

Treasury of Moneyology
Multitude of multi-media resources to introduce and teach money and mathematics skills

  • Bank/School Partnership-personnel from Wyoming Bank will go to school and students will visit bank.
  • Money skills: Students will learn to count, add, subtract, and figure sales tax.

Wyoming Central School
Linda Alrneter

Social Studies K-12

Building Linkages Between School Community: ADOPT-A-BUSINESS
Create a link between the business community and school district to allow students to develop an appreciation for business community and allow business community to experience issues facing schools

K-6: Each grade level will adopt a community business

Mt. Morris Central School
Rich Mlyniec

Social Relations
Grade 4

Oliver’s Candy Project Students will identify the skills they might need in a job. They will understand managing resources and demonstrate interpersonal skills.

Students will brainstorm skills they need in a job.
Students will hear presentation from Oliver’s Chocolates.
Students will visit Oliver’s Chocolates.
Students will discuss findings, follow recipe for making chocolate, run a mock store, design their own business, make a flowchart, show decision-making processes, and develop alternate strategies for problems. They will also make oral presentation.




Academic Area Grade Level

Curriculum Description

Sample Activities

School District Representative

Math K-8

See Math Relevance
Learn math skills through problem-solving in coordination with local businesses

  • 5th will learn to write checks and keep ledger using void checks from local bank
  • 8th will learn to calculate interest for loans by visit to local bank

Lori Orologio
Linda Smith

Math K-5

See Treasury of Moneyology
Multitude of multi-media resources to introduce and teach money and mathematics skills

  • Bank/School Partnership
  • Money Skills

Wyoming Central School
Linda Alrneter

Career Awareness

Developing Career Awareness: Catching Your Dream
1.  Career Awareness Day for 5th graders
2.  Video production for follow- up

Provide middle school students with a beginning study of self-awareness through Career Day with local businesses

Genesee Valley BOCES
Deborah Leh

Communication Skills Grade 5 and 6

Middle School Newspaper
Provides forum for learning and practicing communication skills, both written and oral

  • Introduction of newspapers
  • Modeling skills for Middle School Newspaper
  • Publishing of monthly middle school newspaper

Pavilion Middle School
Barbara Ellingham


Building Linkages Between School Community: Adopt-A-Business Program
Create a link between the business community and school district to allow students to develop an appreciation for business community and allow business community to experience issues facing schools

7-9: Students will adopt an elementary school grade level and work with them and their adopted business

Mt. Morris Central School
Rich Mlyniec
Fran Smith
Sharon Brown
Diane Bedient

Career Exploration
Grade 5 and 6

School Supply Catalog Store
Enhance school to work experience and allow students to experience an awareness of the world of work, explore career options and related skills, aptitudes and abilities

  • Logo contest
  • Career options
  • Job Descriptions
  • Determine items to sell
  • Purchase inventory
  • Job applications/interview
  • Ad campaign
  • Job training/performance
  • Catalog order business
  • Training 5th graders
  • Future goals

Pavilion Middle School
Sheila J. Stellrecht

Grade 7

Business Awareness Project
Acquaint students with the ethics and values of the business community

Students will meet with department heads from Eli Atochem. Representatives from Eli Atochem will visit York Central. Students will visit Eli Atochem, meet and discuss their observations and develop portfolios that will include organizational flowcharts, videos, etc.

York Central School
Lynda Lowe
Hean Moose
Joe Lentner
Barb Higgins
Jim Rogowski
Patrisha Gallana
Karen Bryant

Grade 6

Appreciating Differences
Students visit Dogwood Day Treatment to gain personal experiences with people with differences

Reading/Language Arts Novel Unit for Citizenship/Disability Expectations for Disabilities Unit
Make the Rights Choice!
Handicapped Simulation

Dansville Middle School
Jeannie Reakes

Social Skills
Study Skills

Student Store
Students will complete job application, participate in interview, create and follow schedule, maintain inventory, take money and make change, work as team, serve customers correctly, prioritize schedule, make high academic standards, and promote and advertise store

Students interested in working in the store will attend informational meeting, fill out application, have interview, provide references. After this process students will take inventory and set up store. Scheduling and training will be completed. Store will be promoted, Grand Opening will be held, sales and replenishment of stock will be monitored, weekly inventory and deposits of money will be conducted.

Albion Middle School
Ralph Englert
Mary Ann
Karen Spierdowis

Life Skills
Middle School

School-based Workshop
Students will demonstrate an awareness of different technology available, how technology affects society, demonstrate an understanding of how system performance relates to goals, need for data, select and communicate information, demonstrate an awareness of knowledge, skills, and resources needed to build simple item, and relate to people of different ages and diverse backgrounds

Class will visit ARC workshop for tour and presentation, decide on products to be sold, design and produce flyers for advertising, take orders for products, produce products by deadline, keep track of individual piecework, set up delivery system, collect and keep track of money collected, and teach social skills related to workplace.

Albion Middle School



Academic Area Grade Level(s)

Curriculum Description

Summary Activities

School District

Social Studies

Building Linkages Between School/Community:
Adopt-A Business Program
Create a link between the business community and school district to allow students to develop an appreciation for business community and allow business community to experience issues facing schools

10-12: Students will serve as managers for process

Mt. Morris Central School
Rich Mlyniec

Language Arts

Books on Tape Performance Task
Students will use language arts skills to plan, create and implement a promotional campaign to encourage their peers to become acquainted with Books on Tape (BOT) at Richmond Library

BOT Task 1 - student will design and create instructive tool for helping others become familiar with Books on Tape (BOT) section of Richmond Library;
BOT Task 2 - student will produce an annotated bibliography; BOT Task 3 - student will produce a book review of one of the BOTs; BOT Task 4 - student will score their performance as a group; and BOT Task 5 - student will create, publish, and present promotional material that encourages peers to use BOT section of library

Batavia HS
Elizabeth Francher

Child-Elder Care Program
Senior Students

Workforce Preparation: Child Elder Care Project
Project redesigned classroom activities and projects so they directly relate to workplace applications

Classroom projects and activities include:
Worksite Journal Writing
Development of Learning Centers
Writing Lesson Plans
Demonstration of Lesson Plans
Newsletters for Parents

Genesee Valley BOCES
Ellen Bennett
Janis Weaver

Resume Portfolios
Senior Students

Resume Portfolios
Useful collection of students’ work

Part I - resume, cover letter, evaluations, recommendations, etc.
Part II - Certificates and awards
Part III - work samples

Genesee Valley BOCES
Ellen Bennett
Janis Weaver
716-343 1400

Introduction to Oc cupations
Grade 9

Introductions to Occupations
Career Exploration Model allows students to move beyond regular content to develop their occupational goals, personal goals, values, abilities, and desired lifestyles.

Modules will include:

Module 1: Business and Community
Module 2: Financial Resource Management
Module 3: Career Exploration
Module 4: Career Selection Process
Module 5: Budgets, Savings, Checking
Module 6: Job Acquisition Forms
Module 7: External Influences
Module 8: Federal & State Income Tax Preparation, Credit, and Installment Buying
Module 9: Communications Systems
Module 10: Job Adaptability Process
Module 11: Smart Consumerism
Module 12: Production Systems
Module 13: General V Enterprises
Module 14: General Job Shadowing

Mt. Morris
Rich Mlyniec
Jean Dutchess
Craig King
(716) 658-33

Technology Math
Business Communications

Ergonomics in the Office Environment
Project divided into stages. so that knowledge of ergonomics will be gained through various lessons. Each stage interrelated. Students will work in all four areas to prepare for final project.

Examples of rubrics are Oral Presentation, Technical Narrative Group Dynamics, Original and Revised Floor Plan/Elevation, Survey, Chart, Graphs, Business Correspondence, Statistical Analysis-Measurement,

Computation and Terminology, Portfolio Design, Annotated Photo Documentation, Self Assessment, and Daily Log

Warsaw Central School

Ruthanne Vitagliano


Human Services
Natural Resources
Fine Arts Communications
Special Ed
Grade 9

Career Clusters
Students will develop an awareness of the world of work, explore career options, and relate personal skills, aptitudes and abilities to future careers within each of the Career Clusters.

Examples include:

  1. Students will develop an awareness of world of work, explore career options, and relate personal skills, aptitudes and abilities to future career decisions.
  2. Identify educational requirements for various careers.
  3. Students will develop an understanding that technology is the process and product of human skill and ingenuity in designing and making things out of available resources to satisfy personal and societal needs and wants.
  4. Students will demonstrate interpersonal competencies which lead to good teamwork and cooperation in large and small groups.
  5. Activities and evaluation methods on Career Cluster Curriculum for Special Education classes will be modified.

Albion HS
Ada Grabowksi

Grade 12

Career Search Research Project
Students research various jobs to determine education, nature of work, conditions, and salary

Students researched Fashion Designers, Free Lance Writers, Interior Decorating, Real Estate Agent, Paralegal, Business Teacher, Financial Services Broker

Batavia HS
Sharon Messina

Grade 11 and 12

Job Acquisition Curriculum
The purpose of this project is to introduce the student to a process that almost ALL individuals will have to go through in their lives–the Job Acquisition Process

Aligning parts are: Career Development, Universal Foundation Skills/Career Options; Job Acquisition, Job Leads; Letter of Application, the Resume, the Job Application; and the Interview

Notre Dame
Wayne Lazewski
Paul LaValley

Applied communications
Language Arts
Grade 11 and 12

Planning the Business Venture: Writing the Business Plan
Local businesses will be able to invest in students’ projects; students will be asked to select a local business person whose enterprise most clearly resembles the kind of venture the student intends to design

The business plan will include a description of the business proposed, a consumer profile, a description of operations and schedules, a summary of loan expenditures, cash flow projections, and a description of the management. The completed plan will be published and bound as a professional quality document

Sharon Messina
Elizabeth Fancher

Introduction to Oc cupations

School-to-Work Career Module
Provide the students the opportunity to enrich their career awareness and exploration

Content outline is:
I. Relationship of Lifestyle to Career Choice
II. Career Preparation
III. Job Preparation
IV. Job Shadow Experience

Leigh Major
Catherine Pospula


Teachers in the Brewster Central School District have constructed a portfolio-based Home and Career Skills curriculum to address the standards found in Career Development and Occupational Studies. This sampling of tasks includes experiences in self-knowledge, life roles, educational development, and career exploration during the middle school years.


Grades 6-8





Work Ethic Program

Students use time cards to "clock" in and out of class and get paid in Home and Career Skills, "dollars" for full periods of "work."

"Bonus Bucks" are given for exceptional work or attitude.

Student "paymasters" collect time cards, keep accounts, and write out and return checks each week.

Checks and bonus bucks are stored in "pay envelopes" attached to the student’s Home and Career Skills portfolio until the end of the quarter which forces the student into a weekly self-review of his portfolio.

Students get "longevity" raises each year.


Universal Foundation Skills

Decision- Making

Study characteristics and steps in decision-making.

Make group decision on recipe selection based upon list of restricted available resources.


Universal Foundation Skills

Problem- Solving


Study steps in problem-solving.

Select typical teenage problem and apply steps.

Write play that demonstrates problem selected and possible solutions. Videotape play for class viewing and evaluation.


Universal Foundation Skills


Comparison of name brand and store brand products by blind testing for key factors.

Label interpretation for product use and safety, ingredients, price, and nutritional value. Students then invent a new food product and create labels for it.

Interpretation of consumer research publications. Students read about and report, both orally and in writing, on a product.

Study supermarket industry and systems, layout of a typical store, and ways to save money when food shopping. Students create an accurate shopping list for an assigned menu.

Examination of advertising techniques and psychology. Students create multiple ads for one product showing different techniques.

Study of complaint resolution steps and strategies. Students write a letter of complaint about an assigned consumer problem.

Students run own consumer study comparing home-made recipe to store products.


Integrated Learning

Career Interest Inventory

Under the supervision of the Home and Career Skills teacher and the Guidance Counselor, who comes in to team teach this unit, the students take a self-administered interest inventory test.

Students identify their highest scoring career clusters.

Career clusters are examined for the elements they have in common and the skills required.

Students identify their highest interest jobs/careers within their selected clusters and examine the level of education recommended for those careers.

Booklet is stored in the Part II portfolio to be worked on further in 8th grade.


Career Development

Money Management

Students study various credit instruments and sources of credit. They explore characteristics lending institutions look for in issuing credit and problems that arise when credit is not used wisely.

Students study how a checking account operates. Each student is issued a checkbook and register and a list of transactions. All transactions are to be completed and checkbook balanced.

Students examine paycheck deductions and what deductions go towards.

Students examine and evaluate various possible job benefits at different stages of the life cycle.

Students study a variety of ways to save money and evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of each method. They calculate their present net worth by listing their current assets and liabilities.

Students examine the insurance industry and consider various possible forms of insurance they may have to purchase in the future.


Integrated Learning


Students select an entry level job from the local newspaper’s employment ads and calculate what their take-home pay would be.

Students estimate their flexible expenses for food, clothing, transportation, recreation, medical, etc., modified by any existing job benefits.

Students estimate their fixed expenses for rent (taken from local newspaper rental ads), utilities, installment purchase payments, savings, etc.

Students summarize their total expenses and compare them to income to see if they can stay within their budget, or if they must modify their expenses.


Integrated Learning


secondary Educational Planning

Students learn the statistics on skill levels required in the current job market and examine the options available for postsecondary education and training.

Students learn about possible sources of financial aid for postsecondary education and the necessity of creating a budget to finance further education.


Career Development

Job Acquisition Skills

Students learn to read employment advertisements and examine them for required skills and characteristics.

Students select an ad for career employment that requires some postsecondary education.

Students study interviewing skills and participate in a mock interview.

Students learn how to fill out a job application and complete one for their selected job.

Students study resume writing and create a personal resume using accurate personal data and projected educational and work experience.


Career Development

Career Search

Using the Career Interest Inventory results from the previous year, students research their three selected jobs on the computer and through the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

Students write an essay about their top career choice, examining required skills, educational level, desirable personal characteristics, outlook for employment, and match with interests and abilities.


Career Development


Students examine characteristics of successful entrepreneurs.

Students brainstorm possible businesses they could start as a class and generate a list for market research.

Students survey the school and public to select the business with the greatest chance for success.

Students create a corporate structure and select division heads. They create a business plan and request a loan from the school.

Students brainstorm and select a charity to benefit from any profits they may make.

Students run business for several days, keeping accounts and paying back loan.

Students close down business and give final report on results.



Integrated Learning

Universal Foundation Skills


Teachers in the Peekskill City School District have designed a portion of their curriculum to help students develop the fundamental concepts and skills which will prepare them for work and lifelong learning in the 21st century. The following examples identify the skills and activities used to master the universal foundation skills.





Allocates Time:
Selects relevant, goal-related activities; ranks them in order of importance; allocates time to activities; and understands, prepares, and follows schedules.

  • Identifies long-term goals based on personal values.
  • Estimates/revises time schedule required to complete a project.
  • Completes corporate tasks as scheduled.

Allocates Money:
Uses or prepares budgets, including cost and revenue forecasts; keeps detailed records to track budget performance; and makes appropriate adjustments.

  • Demonstrates ability to accurately complete business-related math problems.
  • Prepares a personal budget that includes a savings plan.
  • Uses fiscal assessments to enhance consumer decision-making.

Allocates Material and Facility Resources:
Acquires, stores, and distributes materials, supplies, parts, equipment, space, or final products in order to make the best use of them.

  • Prepares shopping list and schedule for production of corporate products.
  • Develops and evaluates menus.
  • Develops and implements storage plans.

Allocates Human Resources:
Assesses knowledge and skills and distributes work accordingly, evaluates performance, and provides feedback.

  • Designs/implements a plan to attain personal goals based on human and economic resources.
  • Prepares a self-analysis in relation to a career path.
  • Develops a staffing plan.
  • Writes a job description.
  • Conducts a performance evaluation.

Acquires and Evaluates Information:
Identifies need for data, obtains it from existing sources or creates it, and evaluates its relevance and accuracy.

  • Researches the benefits and liabilities of labor union activities.
  • Conducts career research in the three vocational areas of business, food, and technology and prepares reports.
  • Listens to guest speaker(s) and completes an analysis and summary.
  • Completes a mosaic identifying personal values and interests.
  • Locates classified ad for job that matches personal profile.
  • Makes a mock purchase of stock and graphs a price chart for two weeks.
  • Presents an oral annual report (corporate).
  • From clippings from the financial section of local newspaper, highlights "new" industry that will mean additional jobs.

Organizes and Maintains Information:
Organizes, processes, and maintains written or computerized records and other forms of information in a systematic fashion.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of channels of distribution (buying and selling) by preparing the following documents: purchase order, bill, or lading invoice.
  • Prepares personal and corporate checkbooks with deposit tickets and check registers.
  • Reconciles a bank statement.

Interprets and Communicates Information:
Selects and analyzes information and communicates the results to others using oral, written, graphic, pictorial, or multi-media methods.

  • Completes a job application/resume.
  • Identifies the difference between needs and wants when making purchases over a life cycle.
  • Explains the use of equipment and utensils, including proper care and storage.
  • Prepares a mailable letter of complaint, showing knowledge of consumer rights.
  • Completes a sales contract.
  • Develops a reference referral form.
  • Prepares a credit card application, demonstrating knowledge of credit rights and responsibilities.
  • Prepares a loan application.
  • Prepares a 1040EZ income tax form from "wages" earned as Workforce 2000+ corporate worker.
  • Writes a report on stock evaluation.
  • Analyzes the use of various products/preparation methods (with regard to quality and use of time, energy, and money).
  • Interprets information provided on consumer labels.
  • Conducts a worker (relative, parent) interview to determine job duties, education, preparation, opportunities, advantages, and limitations.
  • Participates in field trip to a manufacturing business.
  • Researches a particular mechanical fastening technique and completes a fact sheet on the advantages and limitations of the fastener.
  • Prepares reports on raw materials.
  • Plans and makes oral presentation (with group) using visuals.
  • Prepares mailable letter of application.

Uses Computers to Process Information:
Employs computers to acquire, organize, analyze, and communicate information.

  • Uses spreadsheet in preparing a budget.
  • Prepares a business budget.
  • Prepares corporate annual report.





Participates as a Member of a Team:
Works cooperatively with others and contributes to group with ideas, suggestions, and effort.

  • Demonstrates use of the five communications skills in employer/employee relationships.
  • Participates in a mock stockholders meeting.
  • Collaborates with group members to solve a problem.
  • Develops strategies for accomplishing team objectives.
  • Works through a group conflict situation.

Teaches Others:
Help others learn.

  • Prepares and explains a collage on nutritional topics.
  • Conducts and reports on a market survey of proposed food products for corporate sales.
  • Trains a colleague on-the-job.
  • Explores possible solutions to a problem in a formal group situation.

Serves Clients/Customers:
Works and communicates with clients and customers to satisfy their expectations.

  • Conducts a market survey regarding a proposed working model; and conducts interviews and gathers data about consumer demand, product feasibility, and product design.
  • Plans an advertising campaign for the production company, showing the six techniques used to persuade a consumer.
  • In a group, prepares radio advertisement, television commercial, and poster.
  • Deals with a dissatisfied customer in person (role play).

Exercises Leadership:
Communicates thoughts, feelings, and ideas to justify positions; and encourages, persuades, convinces, or otherwise motivates an individual or group, including responsibly challenging existing procedures, policies, or authority.

  • Uses specific team-building strategies in a work group.
  • Selects and uses an appropriate leadership style for different situations.
  • Uses effective delegation techniques.

Works towards an agreement that may involve exchanging specific resources or resolving divergent interests.

  • Develops an action plan for corporate negotiations.

Works with Cultural Diversity:
Works well with men and women of varied ethnic, social, and educational backgrounds.

  • Demonstrates an understanding of how people with differing cultural/ethnic backgrounds behave in various situations (work, public places, and social gatherings).
  • Demonstrates the use of techniques for resolving conflicts.





Understands Systems:
Knows how social, organizational, and technological systems work and operates effectively within them.

  • Answers interview questions (in writing or orally) appropriately.
  • Applies bookkeeping procedures to preparation of a business payroll.
  • Demonstrates and uses safety practices to prevent accidents.
  • Demonstrates how to prevent food-borne illnesses.

Monitors and Corrects Performance:
Distinguishes trends, predicts impact of actions on system operations, diagnoses deviations in the function of a system/organization, and takes necessary action to correct performance.

  • Demonstrates how resources change over time and are influenced by goals, needs, and availability.

Improves and Designs Systems:
Makes suggestions to modify existing systems to improve products or services, and develops new or alternative systems.

  • Develops monitoring processes (quality control).





Selects Technology:
Judges which set of procedures, tools or machines, including computers and their programs, will produce the desired results.

  • Produces corporate products: serving tray, plant hanger, and/or metal pan.
  • Prepares and evaluates recipes and products.

Applies Technology to Task:
Understands the overall intent and the proper procedures for setting up and operating machines, including computers and their programming systems.

  • Prepares and evaluates products for use in corporate sales.
  • Demonstrates basic techniques used to prepare corporate products.
  • Demonstrates knowledge and preliminary skill in the operation and/or use of equipment.
  • Builds a "competitive engineering project."
  • Demonstrates ability to injection mold.
  • Produces a vacuum formed object.
  • Uses CAD to design/develop product.

Maintains and Troubleshoots Technology:
Prevents, identifies, or solves problems in machines, computers, and other technologies.

  • Follows rules for use of equipment.
  • Follows safety checklist.



Sample of Local Curricula:
Logistics Operations/Management

The Business and Marketing Education Department at Norman Thomas High School in New York City has organized their Logistics Operations/Management career major program around the skills associated with the State standard/performance indicators outlined in the Business/Information Systems section of Standard 3.b– Career Majors. In addition, the locally-developed curricula reinforces many of the skills associated with Standard 1– Career Development, Standard 2– Integrated Learning, and Standard 3.a– Universal Foundation Skills.

The Council of Logistics Management defines logistics as "the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements." The objectives of the program at Norman Thomas are to provide students with the basic skills and competencies necessary to obtain an entry-level job in the logistics career field and, also, to prepare them for successful study in a logistics operations/management postsecondary-level program.

The following curricula content were developed by the faculty of Norman Thomas High School with assistance and input from postsecondary education representatives, members of the New York City business community, and representatives from the New York City Roundtable of the Council of Logistics Management. The program is supported by other course work in business/ marketing, computer technology, math, science, social studies, English, foreign language, etc.



Introduction to Global Trade

- Content Outline - (one unit)


Module 1: The Basics of Logistics

  1. The Business Office Environment
  2. Introduction to Work Relationships
  3. Communications in Business
  4. Business Meetings
  5. Basic Economic Understanding
  6. Introduction to Exporting and Importing

Module 2: Transportation

  1. History
  2. Logistics Vocabulary/Terms
  3. United States and Metric Measurements
  4. Ground Transportation
  5. Air Transportation
  6. Ocean Transportation
  7. Postal Service
  8. Storage Facilities
  9. Criteria for Selecting Transportation Services

Module 3: Finance

  1. Commercial Banks
  2. How Banks Assist Logistics Customers
  3. Payment Methods/Terms

Module 4: Important Skill Areas for a Logistics Career

  1. Human Relations
  2. Attitude
  3. Self-Esteem
  4. Personal Appearance
  5. Initiative
  6. Creativity
  7. Confidence/Assertiveness

Module 5: Principles of Marketing, Exporting, and Importing

  1. Marketing
  2. Exporting
  3. Importing

Module 6: Government and Logistics

  1. Government Objectives
  2. Trade Strategies

Module 7: Enhancing Human Relations-Related Skills for Logistics Employees

  1. Human Relations
  2. Feedback
  3. Organization Skills
  4. Acting Responsibly
  5. Goal Setting

Module 8: The Future

  1. Reasons for Change
  2. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  3. Value Added
  4. Satellite Tracking
  5. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  6. Your Career in Logistics



Logistics Management

- Content Outline - (one unit)


Module 1: Introduction to Logistics Operations and Management

  1. Basic Terms/Definitions
  2. The Evolution of Logistics
  3. Logistics Infrastructure/Activities
  4. Relationships to Other Business/Marketing Functions and Activities
  5. Current Trends in Supply-Chain Management

Module 2: Procurement Management

  1. Purchasing Basics
  2. Purchasing Cycle
  3. Suppliers

Module 3: Packaging and Materials Handling

  1. Principles of Packaging
  2. Materials Handling

Module 4: Warehousing Activities

  1. Objectives of the Warehousing Function
  2. Menu of Services
  3. Warehouse Equipment
  4. Cost Components

Module 5: Inventory Management

  1. Production Support
  2. Finished Goods
  3. Inventory Operations
  4. Cost Components
  5. Inventory Tracking Systems
  6. Stockkeeping Principles
  7. Reordering
  8. Inventory Review/Reduction

Module 6: Transportation Management

  1. Physical Distribution Methods/Media
  2. Documentation and Contracts
  3. Equipment

Module 7: The Customer Service Function

  1. Strategy
  2. Performance
  3. Infrastructure
  4. Measurement


Interdisciplinary Instructional Strategies

Following are four sample interdisciplinary instructional strategies collaboratively developed by a business/marketing teacher, an English teacher, a social studies teacher, and a foreign language teacher.

Instructional Strategy for use in a business/marketing class:

Take the class on a field trip to one of New York City’s three major airports to observe and learn about air freight/cargo systems.

Instructional Strategy for use in an English class:

Have students read the book Power Shift and then write a report and deliver an oral presentation about how technology will change logistic operations/management in the future.

Instructional Strategy for use in a social studies class:

Assign students to role-play economic advisors to the President and suggest strategies for correcting the United States trade imbalance with Japan.

Instructional Strategy for use in a foreign language class:

Have students develop a list, in the language they are studying, of the products that are exported and imported by that country.



New Vision Health Exploration Program

New Vision is an exciting new approach to program delivery for eligible high school seniors. It provides an in-depth overview of a chosen professional field by placing the student in an actual work environment. New Vision successfully integrates senior English, Anatomy and Physiology and Social Studies into a meaningful curriculum based on the career interest of health care. It provides a sense of closure to the senior year and a directed transition to postsecondary education.


Key Program Elements

  1. Location - Classroom is strategically located in the Veterans’ Administration Medical Center in Syracuse.
  2. Interdisciplinary Approach - Students study senior level English and Social Studies within the context of the course curriculum. This relates their academic knowledge to health careers.


Program Objectives

The student will:

  1. apply previous and new academic knowledge and skills to professional situations
  2. expand and apply both written and oral communication skills to effectively communicate with persons outside their peer group
  3. improve ability to problem solve and think critically
  4. develop career plans based on experiential learning
  5. begin the transition from high school to college education.


Student Eligibility

The New Vision students must:

  1. be a senior from a component high school
  2. have met graduation requirements prior to acceptance into the program
  3. have demonstrated an interest and desire to enter a health career
  4. be academically capable of postsecondary education in a health career
  5. exhibit a high level of responsibility and maturity, with the ability to work in a team as well as individually
  6. be conscientious and highly motivated to succeed.



New Vision Health Careers Curriculum
Integration of Government and Economics


History of Health Care


Health Care Systems

Health Care Facilities
Organizational Structure
Insurance Plans


Trends in Health Care

Health Care Reform
Cost Containment
Diagnostic Related Groups


Health Career Search

Qualities of Health Care Worker
Health Career Opportunities
Prerequisites for Health Career Education
Shadowing Experiences


Related Microbiology

Universal Precautions


Legal and Ethical Responsibilities


Promotion of Safety


Medical Terminology


Communication Skills



Human Growth and Development





First Aid and CPR



New Vision Social Studies Curriculum/Activities
Participation in Government


Fundamentals of Government

Forms of Governments
      Business, Local, State, Federal, and International
Roles of Government
Rights of Citizens (Bill of Rights versus Patient’s Rights)
Financing Government - Taxes


Government Regulations for Medical Facilities

Medical Ethics (Confidentiality, Patient’s Rights, Biogenetics, and Transplants)
Legal Aspects (Professional Liability and Ethical Committee Decisions)
OSHA Regulations


Global Issues

Gaia’s Principle (Macrocosmos and Human Microcosmos)
Human Responsibilities
Population Control
AIDS Pandemic


Current Issues

Hepatitis B
TB Outbreaks
Right to Die



Speakers/VA Presentations
Immersion with VA Medical Center Staff
Current Events Discussions
Opposing Viewpoints
Comparison of Medical and World Historical Events



New Vision Social Studies Curriculum/Activities


Fundamentals of Economics

Opportunity Cost and Trade-Offs
Economic Systems
Economic Institutions and Incentives
Exchange Money and Interdependence


Microeconomic Concepts

Markets and Prices
Supply and Demand
Competition and Market Structure
Income Distribution
Market Failures
Government Role


Macroeconomic Concepts

Gross National Product
Aggregate Supply and Demand
Inflation and Deflation
Monetary and Fiscal Policy


Measurement Concepts

Ratio and Percentages


Economic Impact of Current Events

Health Care Reform
Stock Market Fluctuations


International Economic Concepts

Absolute and Comparative Advantage and Barriers to Trade
Balance of Payments and Exchange Rates
International Growth and Stability



Personal Budget Planning
Hospital Budget Projects
Opposing Viewpoint Debates
Stock Market Game
Periodical Reviews



New Vision Integration of English Curriculum/Activities
Writing, Reading, Listening, Speaking


Time Management Unit

Textbook Analysis
Note Taking Methods
Assignment Planning


Daily Journal

Narrative Account of the Day
Explanation of Technical Data Acquired
Self Expression of Experience


Monthly Book Reports

Selections must include:

Self Improvement
Medical Ethics
Current Event Topic
Cultural Diversity
Periodical Review


Written Assignments

College Level Anatomy and Physiology Workbook
Weekly Clinical Objectives
Book Reports
Major Senior Term Paper
Persuasive Essays
Critical Thinking Essays



Moral and Ethical Issues in Medicine


Current Events

Issues of Medicine, Economics, and Government Discussed


Interaction One-on-One with Hospital Staff

Interviews of Professionals
Observations in Hospital Services


Medical Terminology/Abbreviations

Weekly Written Tests




Library Skills

Students’ Orientation and Use of SUNY Medical Library


Cooperative Learning Groups

Stock Investment Activity
Assignments on Research


Computer Skills

Integration of Computers in Class and Hospital Experiences


Senior Research Paper

Defense Presentation


Recruitment Presentations

Prepare and Give Presentations to High School Junior Class


Portfolio Development



New Vision Curriculum For Anatomy and Physiology


Unit I - Science Interrelationship

A.  Chemistry

Organic versus Inorganic
Physical and Chemical Change

B.  Physics

Newton’s Law

C.  Microbiology

Organism Classifications
Disease Process
Pathogen Control

Unit II - Body Organization

A. Basic Structures

Components/Units of the Body
Planes, Directions, and Cavities

Unit III - Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology

A.  Body Systems

Special Senses



Sampling of Internet Sites Related to the CDOS Standards

The Internet sites listed below represent a sampling of sites related to the State standards in Career Development and Occupational Studies. The sites are included for informational purposes only. They are not intended as an endorsement by the New York State Education Department.



  • CDOS Website

  • NYS School-to-Work

  • Federal School-to-Work Internet Gateway

  • United States Department of Labor

  • Training Technology Resource Center U.S. department of Labor

  • Career and Technology Studies

  • Instructional Materials Laboratory

  • National Center for Research in Vocational Education

  • United States Department of Education

  • American Vocational Association

  • Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA)

  • Association of Marketing & Management Studies (DECA)
          State Website:
          National Website:

  • Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA)

  • Future Homemakers of America (FHA)

  • Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA)

  • Technology Student Association (TSA)
          State Website:
          National Website:

  • Future Farmers of America (FFA)